Grimm, now 20 and living in California, has undergone chest reconstruction surgery and hormone therapy. He also obtained a Virginia court order and Virginia birth certificate declaring his sex is male in , when he was still in 12th grade.
Justices turn aside another challenge over Obama's citizenship
Corrigan, the school board's lawyer, argued that its bathroom policy is based on a binary, "two choices for all" view of gender — not a "societal construct. He said the board treated Grimm with respect and said Grimm refused to use the single-stall restrooms on the advice of the ACLU. District Court Judge Arenda Wright Allen questioned whether the board had the authority to question the validity of a birth certificate or court order.
Corrigan said those things did not determine Grimm's gender but anatomy does, and asserted that Grimm hasn't undergone gender reassignment surgery.
Hawaii Official Says No Birth Certificate for President Obama?
The judge has sided with Grimm during previous steps in the case. And she famously overturned Virginia's ban on same-sex marriage in She is expected to issue a ruling in the coming weeks. Her eventual decision could affect schools in Virginia and reverberate beyond the state if the case reaches the federal appeals court that also oversees Maryland, West Virginia and the Carolinas.
Constitution's equal protection clause as well as under Title IX, the federal policy that protects against gender-based discrimination. Harper Jean Tobin, policy director for the National Center for Transgender Equality, said Grimm's case likely will join the "steady drum beat" of recent court rulings favoring transgender students in states including Maryland , Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. But she said a patchwork of differing transgender bathroom policies are still in place in schools across the country.
Gary McCaleb, senior counsel for the conservative Christian group Alliance Defending Freedom, said the overall issue is far from resolved in the courts. McCaleb cited a federal discrimination complaint the ADF filed in June that says a Connecticut policy on transgender athletes is unfair because it allows transgender girls to consistently win track and field events.
He also said a pending U. Supreme Court case involving a transgender woman who was fired by a Michigan funeral home could affect school bathroom policies. McCaleb said that "no student's right to privacy should be contingent on other students' beliefs about their gender.
Grimm's case began after his mother notified school administrators that he had transitioned to a boy as a result of his medical treatment for gender dysphoria. That was at the start of his sophomore year at Gloucester High School, which is about 60 miles 95 kilometers east of Richmond and near the Chesapeake Bay. Grimm was initially allowed to use the boys restroom. But after some parents complained, students were told their use of restrooms and locker rooms "shall be limited to the corresponding biological genders" or a private restroom.
FALSE: Hawaii Official Says No Birth Certificate for President Obama
A federal judge sided with the school board. But the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in Grimm's favor, citing the Obama directive on bathrooms. Obama and his staff produced copies of his birth certificate when he was running for president in , and have previously dismissed questions over his citizenship. Other legal claims on the citizenship question whether Obama was in fact born in the United States, and whether his birth documents are authentic. Among the issues the high court has refused to fully address in these appeals involves "standing," whether individual Americans can bring such a lawsuit, by first establishing personal, direct "harm" or "injury" from having Obama occupy the White House.
Overcoming that legal hurdle would allow such suits to proceed on the merits in courts.
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Some of the claims of various "birther" movement organizers insist the president was born in Kenya or Indonesia; that his birth certificate is a forgery; and that he had dual American-British citizenship at birth because of his father's Kenyan heritage and therefore is not a "natural born" citizen. Share this on:. Do 'birther' arguments hold water? In January , Berg resigned from the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States after it had previously ordered him to explain why he should not be expelled. Berg stated his intention to reapply for membership once the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania restored his law license.
Berg was disbarred on consent from practicing law in Pennsylvania; the state Supreme Court announced on June 16, , that he had submitted a letter of resignation that the court kept under seal.
The court said that he had neglected to inform a client that a judge had dismissed her lawsuit. The court said his client went two years without learning of the dismissal. In October , Berg filed Rodriguez v. Bush , accusing the President of the United States and other parties of complicity in the September 11 attacks.
Bush , George W. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
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This lawsuit made hundreds of allegations including allegations that the Twin Towers were destroyed by means of "controlled demolitions;" that members of the FDNY were ordered, on instructions of the CIA , not to talk about it; that the FDNY conspired with Larry Silverstein to deliberately destroy 7WTC; that projectiles were fired at the Twin Towers from "pods" affixed to the underside of the planes that struck them; that FEMA is working with the US government to create "American Gulag" concentration camps which FEMA will run once the federal government's plan to impose martial law is in place; that phone calls made by some of the victims, as reported by their family members, were not actually made but were "faked" by the government using "voice morphing" technology; that a missile, not American Airlines Flight 77, struck the Pentagon; that United Airlines Flight 93 was shot down by the U.
The plaintiff failed to do so, and the court dismissed all of the claims against all of the remaining defendants on July 17, The injunction was denied by Justice David Souter on November 3, Berg also sought an application for injunction pending the disposition of the petition for writ of certiorari; Justice Souter denied it, Berg refiled and submitted it to Justice Anthony Kennedy who denied it , then refiled and submitted it to Justice Antonin Scalia , who referred it to the Court.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about Philip J. Berg, the attorney.
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For Philip S. Berg, head of the Kabbalah Centre, see Philip Berg.